现在完成进行时

现在完成进行时的构成

现在完成进行时是由两个要素构成:Be 动词的现在完成时 (have/has been),加上主要动词(原型+ing)的现在分词。

主词 has/have been 动词原型 + ing
She has been swimming

肯定句:She has been / She's been running.
否定句:She hasn't been running.
疑问句:Has she been running?
否定型疑问句:Hasn't she been running?

现在完成进行时,以「to live」为例:
肯定句 否定句 疑问句
I have been living I haven't been living Have I been living?
You have been living You haven't been living Have you been living?
He, she, it has been living He hasn't been living Has she been living?
We have been living We haven't been living Have we been living?
You have been living You haven't been living Have you been living?
They have been living They haven't been living Have they been living?

现在完成进行时的作用

现在完成进行时涉及以前到现在一段不明确的时间,谈的是某件已经发生的事,但也许还没有结束,强调的是动作的过程产生的结果,而且这个过程可能还会持续着,或者可能才刚结束。

始于过去且当下仍在持续的动作

She has been waiting for you all day (= 而且她现在还在等待).
I've been working on this report since eight o'clock this morning (= 而且我还没做完).
They have been travelling since last October (= 而且他们还没回家).

刚结束的动作,但说话者要强调的是这个动作产生的结果,或对现在造成的影响

She has been cooking since last night (= 而且桌上的食物看起来很美味).
It's been raining (= 街道上还是湿的).
Someone's been eating my chips (= 半包没了).

不用在进行时的动词

对于不用在进行时的动词,就使用现在完成时。例如:I've wanted to visit China for years.
She's known Robert since she was a child.
I've hated that music since I first heard it.
I've heard a lot about you recently.
We've understood everything.
we've heard this morning.