现在分词

多数动词的现在分词都有「动词原型+ing」的型态,用法有很多种。

将现在分词用为动词进行式的一部分
举例
  • I am working.
  • He was singing.
  • They have been walking.
  • We will be staying.
  • She would have been expecting me.
现在分词与表达行进丶姿势的动词连用

这种结构在动词 to go 上特别常见。

举例
  • She went shopping.
  • I go running every morning.
  • He lay looking up at the clouds.
  • She came running towards me.
现在分词与感知动词连用

这种用法的句型为:动词 + 受词 + 现在分词。当这类句子包含的是零不定词(也就是不含 to 的不定词)而不是分词时,意思上会有所不同。不定词涉及的是一个完成的动作,而现在分词涉及的是持续性的动作。

举例
  • I heard someone singing.
  • He saw his friend walking along the road.
  • I can smell something burning!
  • I watched the birds flying away.
现在分词用为形容词
举例
  • It was an amazing film.
  • Dark billowing clouds often precede a storm.
  • He was trapped inside the burning house.
  • Many of his paintings show the setting sun.
现在分词与 spend 和 waste 等动词连用

这类动词的句型是:动词 + 表达时间/金钱的词语 + 现在分词

举例
  • My boss spends two hours a day travelling to work.
  • Don't waste time playing computer games!
  • They've spent the whole day shopping.
  • I wasted money buying this game.
现在分词与 catch 和 find 等动词的连用

使用这些动词的句型为:动词 + 受词 + 现在分词。用在 catch 后的现在分词,往往有「某件事造成滋扰或愤怒」之意。跟动词 find 的情况不同,没有情绪的意味。

举例
  • If I catch you stealing my apples again, there'll be trouble!
  • Don't let him catch you reading his letters.
  • I caught him going through my bag.
  • We found some money lying on the ground.
  • They found their mother sitting in the garden.
用现在分词表达两个动作同时进行

当两个动作同时发生,而且是由同个人或同件事物所做的动作,我们就会用现在分词来描述其中一个动作。当某个动作紧接在另一个动作后,而这个动作是由同个人或事物所做的;我们就可以将第一个动作用现在分词来表达。

举例
  • Whistling to himself, he walked down the road. = He whistled to himself as he walked down the road.
  • They went laughing out into the snow. = They laughed as they went out into the snow.
  • Dropping the gun, she put her hands in the air. = She dropped the gun and put her hands in the air.
  • Putting on his coat, he left the house. = He put on his coat and left the house.
用现在分词来说明原因

现在分词可以用来取代以 as丶since丶because 为首的片语。在这种用法中,分词片语说明某个动作的理由或原因。

举例
  • Feeling hungry, he went into the kitchen and opened the fridge.
  • Being poor, he didn't spend much on clothes.
  • Knowing that his mother was coming, he cleaned the flat.
  • He whispered, thinking his brother was still asleep.