过去完成时

过去完成时的作用

过去完成时涉及稍久以前发生的事,可以清楚表达某件事比另一件事还要早发生。哪件事先被提及并不重要——时态自然会表明哪件事先发生。

在这些例句中,「事件一」最早发生,而「事件二」后来才发生,或是不久前才发生:

事件一 事件二
John had gone out when I arrived in the office.
事件一 事件二
I had saved my document before the computer crashed.
事件二 事件一
When they arrived we had already started cooking.
事件二 事件一
He was very tired because he hadn't slept well.

过去完成时的构成

英语中的过去完成时是由两个要素形成:动词 have 的过去时 had + 主要动词的过去分词。

主词 had 过去分词
肯定句
She had given.
否定句
She hadn't asked.
疑问句
Had they arrived?
否定疑问句
Hadn't you finished?
过去完成时,以 to decide 为例:
肯定句 否定句 疑问句
I had decided. I hadn't decided. Had I decided?
You had decided. You hadn't decided. Had you decided?
She had decided. She hadn't decided. Had she decided?
We had decided. We hadn't decided. Had we decided?
They had decided. They hadn't decided. Had they decided?

在过去完成时用「just」

「just」用于过去完成时的时候,涉及某个动作比刚才再稍早一点发生。例如:

  • The train had just left when I arrived at the station.
  • She had just left the room when the police arrived.
  • I had just put the washing out when it started to rain.