所有格的形成

所有格与名词连用,即表示一个物体与另一物体的从属关系。如要形成所有格,则在名词字尾加「's」即可。如果名词为复数,或字尾是 s,就只要在字尾后加撇号即可。

举例
  • the car of John = John's car
  • the room of the girls = the girls' room
  • clothes for men = men's clothes
  • the boat of the sailors = the sailors' boat

对于以 s 结尾的名字,可以选择在字尾加撇号和 s,或只加一个撇号,前者较为常用。在所有格的名字上,我们会在名字的尾音加上 /z/ 音。

举例
  • Thomas's book (或 Thomas' book)
  • James's shop (或 James' shop)
  • the Smiths's house (或 the Smiths' house)
所有格的作用

所有格最常表达的关系是「属于」或「拥有」。

举例
  • John owns a car. = It is John's car.
  • America has some gold reserves. = They are America's gold reserves.

所有格也可以表达某人工作丶读书或消磨时间的地方。

举例
  • John goes to this school. = This is John's school.
  • John sleeps in this room. = This is John's room.

所有格可以表达两人之间的关系。

举例
  • John's mother is running late.
  • Mrs Brown's colleague will not be coming to the meeting.

所有格也可以用于表达无形的事物。

举例
  • John's patience is running out.
  • The politician's hypocrisy was deeply shocking.
固定表达方式

有几种固定表达方式会用所有格。

带有时间的例子
  • a day's work
  • a month's pay
  • today's newspaper
  • in a year's time
其他例子
  • For God's sake!(= 恼怒的惊叹词)
  • a stone's throw away(= 非常近)
  • at death's door(= 病得很重)
  • in my mind's eye(= 就我的想像)

也可用职称或人名的所有格来表达某人创立的店家丶餐厅丶教堂和大学等机构。

举例
  • Shall we go to Luigi's for lunch?
  • I've got an appointment at the dentist's at eleven o'clock.
  • Is Saint Mary's an all-girls school?