指示词

指示词表达某物与说话者之间的关系,可以表达实际上或心理上的远或近。当谈到某些事物时,近指地点指示词(如 here)常用来指目前的事物,而远指地点指示词(如 there)常用来指过去的事物。

  距离说话者近 距离说话者远
副词 Here There
与单数名词和不可数名词连用的指示词 This That
与复数可数名词连用的指示词 These Those

指示词的用法

举例
距离说话者近 距离说话者远
Is this John's house? Is that John's house over there?
This is a nice surprise! That must have been a nice surprise for you.
These apples are mine. Those apples are yours.
What are you up to these days? Those days are long gone.
This time I won't be late. We really surprised you that time.
This sugar is for my crepes. You can use that sugar for your cake.

在句中的位置

指示词可以放在名词前,或是放在修饰名词的形容词前。

举例
  • This blue car needs to be washed next.
  • Those people were here first.
  • That metal rod should work.
  • These oranges are delicious.

如果在语境中已经确知名词为何,就可以直接在数字前加指示词。

举例
  • I'd like to try on that one.
  • This one is broken.
  • I'll take these three.
  • Those two are not as pretty as these two.

如果已经确知指示词修饰的名词为何,则可以单独使用,省略名词。

举例
  • I'll never forget this.
  • That has nothing to do with me.
  • I didn't ask for these.
  • Those aren't mine.