一般过去时

一般过去时的作用

一般过去时用来谈论以前完成的动作。持续多久并不重要,动作的发生时间可能是不久之前或很久以前。

举例
  • John Cabot sailed to America in 1498.
  • My father died last year.
  • He lived in Fiji in 1976.
  • We crossed the Channel yesterday.

每当谈到某事发生的时间,一律要用一般过去时;因此它和过去特定的时间词有关。

  • 频率:often, sometimes, always
    I sometimes walked home at lunchtime.
    I often brought my lunch to school.
  • 明确的时间点:last week, when I was a child, yesterday, six weeks ago
    We saw a good film last week.
    Yesterday, I arrived in Geneva.
    She finished her work atseven o'clock
    I went to the theatre last night
  • 不明确的时间点:the other day, ages ago, a long time ago People lived in caves a long time ago.
  • She played the piano when she was a child.

注:「ago」这个字非常好用,可以表达现在到过去的时间有多长。ago 一律放在一段时间之后:a week ago、three years ago、a minute ago 等。

要注意:也许在您的母语中,也有与英语中的一般过去时类似的时态;但意思上不见得相同。

一般过去时的构成

规则动词在一般过去时的型态
肯定句
主词 + 动词原型 + ed  
I skipped.  
否定句
主词 + did not + 不带有 to 的不定词
They didn't go.
疑问句
Did + 主词 + 不带有 to 的不定词
Did she arrive?
否定疑问句
Did not + 主词 + 不带有 to 的不定词
Didn't you play?
To Walk
肯定句 否定句 疑问句
I walked I didn't walk Did I walk?
You walked You didn't walk Did you walk?
He walked He didn't walk Did he walk?
We walked We didn't walk Did we walk?
They walked They didn't walk Did they walk?
to be丶to have丶to do 的一般过去时
主词 动词
  Be Have Do
I was had did
You were had did
He/She/It was had did
We were had did
You were had did
They were had did

肯定句丶否定句和疑问句的额外补充

肯定句

一般过去时的肯定句非常简单。

  • I was in Japan last year
  • She had a headache yesterday.
  • We did our homework last night.
否定句和疑问句

「do」为一般动词,在一般过去时上,否定句和疑问句会用到助动词「do」。例如:We didn't do our homework last night.
在一般过去时的「have」否定型态,通常以助动词「do」构成,但有时候只要加「not」或缩写「n't」即可。

在一般过去时的「have」疑问型态,一般会使用助动词「do」。

举例
  • They weren't in Rio last summer.
  • We didn't have any money.
  • We didn't have time to visit the Eiffel Tower.
  • We didn't do our exercises this morning.
  • Were they in Iceland last January?
  • Did you have a bicycle when you were young?
  • Did you do much climbing in Switzerland?

注:对于所有一般过去时的动词,在否定型态和疑问型态上,一律用助动词「did」。

一般过去时的不规则动词

一般过去时有几个不规则动词,以下是几个最常用的不规则动词。

to go
  • He went to a club last night.
  • Did he go to the cinema last night?
  • He didn't go to bed early last night.
to give
  • We gave her a doll for her birthday.
  • They didn't give John their new address.
  • Did Barry give you my passport?
to come
  • My parents came to visit me last July.
  • We didn't come because it was raining.
  • Did he come to your party last week?