代词

代词取代了名词。会需要用上不同的代词,取决于两个要素:第一是被取代的名词,第二是名词在句中的作用。在英语中,只有第三人称单数的代词才会表明名词的性别。而第二人称复数与第二人称单数相同,反身代词则除外。

  主格代词 受格名词 所有格形容词(限定词) 所有格代词 反身代词或强调代词
第一人称单数 I me my mine myself
第二人称单数 you you your yours yourself
第三人称单数(男性/阳性) he him his his himself
第三人称单数(女性/阴性) she her her hers herself
第三人称单数(中性) it it its   itself
第一人称复数 we us our ours ourselves
第二人称复数 you you your yours yourselves
第三人称复数 they them their theirs themselves

主格代词

主格代词取代了句中的主词。通常使用第三人称的主格代词,是为了要避免重复称呼原主词。

例句
  • I am 16.
  • You seem lost.
  • Jim is angry, and he wants Sally to apologize.
  • This table is old. It needs to be repainted.
  • We aren't coming.
  • They don't like pancakes.

受格代词

受格代词用来取代句中的直接受词或间接受词。

例句
  • Give the book to me.
  • The teacher wants to talk to you.
  • Jake is hurt because Bill hit him.
  • Rachid recieved a letter from her last week.
  • Mark can't find it.
  • Don't be angry with us.
  • Tell them to hurry up!

所有格形容词(限定词)

所有格形容词并不是代词,而是限定词。但认识代词的同时,不妨也一起认识限定词,因为限定词的型态跟所有格代词很相似。所有格形容词的作用就如形容词,因此它的位置是放在其修饰的名词前,并不会像代词一样取代了名词。

例句
  • Did mother find my shoes?
  • Mrs. Baker wants to see your homework.
  • Can Jake bring over his baseball cards?
  • Samantha will fix her bike tomorrow.
  • The cat broke its leg.
  • This is our house.
  • Where is their school?

所有格代词

所有格代词取代了名词的所有格,成为句中的主词或受词。由於原来的名词被代名词取代了,因此务必确认对方知道它指的是何者,才能直接用代名词。

例句
  • This bag is mine.
  • Yours is not blue.
  • That bag looks like his.
  • These shoes are not hers.
  • That car is ours.
  • Theirs is parked in the garage.

反身代词和强调代词

反身代词和强调代词看起来完全一样,但在句中却有不同的作用。

反身代词会重新提及语句中的主词,因为做出该动作的主词本身也是直接受格或间接受格。只有特定的动词可以用反身代词。您不能将反身代词从句中移除,因为这样会导致其馀的句子文法有误。

例句
  • I told myself to calm down.
  • You cut yourself on this nail?
  • He hurt himself on the stairs.
  • She found herself in a dangerous part of town.
  • The cat threw itself under my car!
  • We blame ourselves for the fire.
  • The children can take care of themselves.

强调代词强调语中的主词,它并不是动作的受词。强调代词一律可从句中移除,而且也不会严重影响了整句话的意思。强调代词可紧接在主词后,或是放在句尾。

例句
  • I made these cookies myself.
  • You yourself asked Jake to come.
  • The Pope himself pardoned Mr. Brown.
  • My teacher didn't know the answer herself.
  • The test itself wasn't scary, but my teacher certainly is.
  • We would like to finish the renovation before Christmas ourselves.
  • They themselves told me the lost shoe wasn't a problem.