被动语态

被动语态的作用

被动语态是用来表示对「承受」某动作的人或物的关注,而不是关注「执行」某动作的人或物。换句话说,最重要的人或物变成句中的主词。

举例
  • The passive voice is used frequently. (= 我们关注的是被动语态,而不是关注使用被动语态的人)
  • The house was built in 1654. (= 我们关注的是房屋,而不是关注建造房屋的人)
  • The road is being repaired. (= 我们关注的是道路,而不是关注修理道路的人)

有时候我们之所以会被动语态,是因为我们不知道丶不想表达执行动作的人或物。

举例
  • I noticed that a window had been left open.
  • Every year thousands of people are killed on our roads.
  • All the cookies have been eaten.
  • My car has been stolen!

被动语态常用在正式书写上,改用主动语态会让您的语句较清楚且容易理解。

被动 主动
A great deal of meaning is conveyed by a few well-chosen words. A few well-chosen words convey a great deal of meaning.
Our planet is wrapped in a mass of gases. A mass of gases wrap around our planet.
Waste materials are disposed of in a variety of ways. The city disposes of waste materials in a variety of ways.

如果在用被动语态时仍想表明执行动作的人或物,这时候就要用介词 by。当我们知道做动作的人是谁,也想强调这个人或事物,改用主动语态总是会比较好。

被动 主动
"A Hard Day's Night" was written by the Beatles. The Beatles wrote "A Hard Day's Night".
The movie ET was directed by Spielberg. Spielberg directed the movie ET.
This house was built by my father. My father built this house.

进一步了解所有英语动词时态的被动语态与同义的主动语态写法

被动语态的构成

英语的被动语态是以两个要素组成:
适当的 Be 动词型态 + 过去分词

肯定句 否定句 疑问句 否定疑问句
The house was built in 1899. The house wasn't built in 1899. Was the house built in 1899? Wasn't the house built in 1899?
These houses were built in 1899. These houses weren't built in 1899. Were these houses built in 1899? Weren't these houses built in 1899?
被动语态,以 to clean 为例
主词 + Be 动词(经过词形变化) + 过去分词 + 句子的其余字词
一般现在时
The house is cleaned every day.
现在进行时
The house is being cleaned at the moment.
一般过去时
The house was cleaned yesterday.
过去进行时
The house was being cleaned last week.
现在完成时
The house has been cleaned since you left.
过去完成时
The house had been cleaned before they arrived.
一般将来时
The house will be cleaned next week.
将来进行时
The house will be being cleaned tomorrow.
条件式现在时
The house would be cleaned if they had visitors.
条件式过去时
The house would have been cleaned if it had been dirty.
不定式
The house must be cleaned before we arrive.
带有不定词的被动语态

不定被动语态用于情态助词后,还有其他多数接不定词的动词后。

举例
  • You have to be tested on your English grammar.
  • John might be promoted next year.
  • She wants to be invited to the party.
  • I expect to be surprised on my birthday.
  • You may be disappointed.
带有动名词的被动语态

动名词用在介词后,以及一般会接动名词的动词后。

举例
  • I remember being taught to drive.
  • The children are excited about being taken to the zoo.
  • The children are excited to be taken to the zoo.
  • Most film stars hate being interviewed.
  • Most film stars hate to be interviewed.
  • Poodles like to be pampered.
  • Poodles like being pampered.
to be born 的用法

「to be born」是一种被动型态,而且多数主要用于过去时。然而在某些情况下,使用现在时或将来时也很妥当。

举例
  • I was born in 1976.
  • Where were you born?
  • Around 100 babies are born in this hospital every week.
  • We don't know on exactly which day the baby will be born.

有时被动语态的构成会用动词 to get 或 to have 来取代 Be 动词。关于这部分,可以参考构成被动语态的替代方法