字尾加 ing 的动词

字尾有 ing 的动词不是「现在分词」就是「动名词」,这两种动词型态看起来是一样的,差异在于它们在句中的作用。

现在分词

现在分词普遍用于动词进行式的一部份丶感知动词后丶行进动词后或用作形容词。

现在分词用作动词进行式的一部份

现在分词是所有进行式时态的动词的要素,包括过去进行时丶现在进行时丶未来进行时丶条件式进行时等。助词会表明时态,而现在分词则维持不变。

举例
  • He is painting.
  • She was waiting.
  • They will be coming.
  • We would be staying.
  • I would have been leaving.
在感知动词后的现在分词

现在分词可以用在感知动词后,表达被感受到的动作。句型为:动词 + 受词 + 现在分词。

举例
  • We saw him swimming across the pond.
  • I watched her painting Sarah's portrait.
  • I couldn't hear her singing because of the noise.
  • I would like to see you knitting sometime.
表示行进丶动作或姿势的动词后面接现在分词,表达并行的动作。
举例
  • She sat looking at the sea.
  • He walks reading his newspaper.
  • I cook listening to the radio.
  • Sally lay listening to the bugs in the grass.
将现在分词用作形容词
举例
  • Did you read that amazing book?
  • This movie is so exciting!
  • His economics class is boring.

进一步了解如何使用现在分词

动名词

动名词虽然看起来像动词,但它跟名词的作用和用法都一样。

将动名词用作句子的主词
举例
  • Eating people is wrong.
  • Driving too fast is dangerous.
  • Walking is good for you.
  • Your knitting is beautiful.
介系词后接动名词
举例
  • Can you sneeze without opening your mouth?
  • She is good at painting.
  • I was the fastest at climbing the rope.
  • He learns music by listening to the chords.
在特定动词后加动名词
举例
  • I like cooking.
  • He enjoys walking.
  • They hate milking cows.
  • I can imagine drifting away in a balloon.
复合名词中的动名词
举例
  • I took her to her driving lessons.
  • We are going to the swimming pool.
  • My uncle does a lot of bird-watching.
  • I found this pie by dumpster-diving.

进一步了解如何使用动名词