不定代词

不定代词指的是不特定的人丶地方或事物。在英语中,有些不定代词是用量词或个别词形成,这类不定代词是以 any丶some丶every 和 no 开头。

  地方 事物
所有 everyone
everybody
everywhere everything
部分(肯定) someone
somebody
somewhere something
部分(否定) anyone
anybody
anywhere anything
no one
nobody
nowhere nothing

以 some 和 any 开头的不定代词描述不定丶不完整的量,就如单独使用 some 和 any 的方式一样。

不定代词在句中的位置跟名词一样。

名词 不定代词
I would like to go to Paris this summer. I would like to go somewhere this summer.
Jim gave me this book. Someone gave me this book.
I won't tell your secret to Sam. I won't tell your secret to anyone.
I bought my school supplies at the mall. I bought everything at the mall.

肯定句

在肯定句中,以 some 开头的不定代词描述的是不定的量。以 every 开头的不定代词是描述完整的量。而以 no 开头的不定代词则是描述不存在丶不在场的人或事物;通常会用在具有否定意思的肯定句,但这类句子并不是否定句,毕竟句中没有 not 这个字。

例句
 
  • Everyone is sleeping in my bed.
  • Someone is sleeping in my bed.
  • No one is sleeping in my bed.
  • I gave everything to Sally.
  • He saw something in the garden.
  • There is nothing to eat.
  • I looked everywhere for my keys.
  • Keith is looking for somewhere to live.
  • There is nowhere as beautiful as Paris.

以 any 开头的不定代词可以用在肯定句,跟 every 的意思很接近:任何人丶任何地方丶任何事物。

例句
  • They can choose anything from the menu.
  • You may invite anybody you want to your birthday party.
  • We can go anywhere you'd like this summer.
  • He would give anything to get into Oxford.
  • Fido would follow you anywhere.

否定句

否定句只能用 any 开头的不定代词。

例句
  • I don't have anything to eat.
  • She didn't go anywhere last week.
  • I can't find anyone to come with me.

在很多情况下,当句中含有 any 开头的不定代词,只要将原先的不定代词改为以 no 开头的不定代词,就可以变成带有否定意义的肯定句。不过这样的改写会改变句子的意思。句中若含有 no 开头的不定代词,语气会变得更强烈,而且会传达出防卫丶绝望丶愤怒等情绪。

举例
  • I don't know anything about it. = 中立
  • I know nothing about it. = 防卫
  • I don't have anybody to talk to. = 中立
  • I have nobody to talk to. = 绝望
  • There wasn't anything we could do. = 中立
  • There was nothing we could do. = 防卫/愤怒

否定问句

以 every丶some丶和 any 开头的不定代词可以用在否定问句上,这类问句一般可以用 Yes/No 来回答。

以 any 和 every 开头的不定代词会被用在 Yes/No 问句上;而以 some 开头的不定代词,会透露出我们已知道该问题的答案丶或对答案有所怀疑。

例句
  • Is there anything to eat?
  • Did you go anywhere last night?
  • Is everyone here?
  • Have you looked everywhere?

只要在问句加上否定的缩写 n't,即成为反问句。当说话的人丢出这样类型的问句,其实是想得到否定的答案。

例句
  • Isn't there anything to eat?
  • Didn't you go anywhere last night?
  • Isn't everyone here?
  • Haven't you looked everywhere?

以 some 开头的代词只用在问句上。通常我们会知道问句的答案,或者不会得到 Yes/No 的回答(例如在提出邀请丶要求等),问这类问题的人,通常会想得到肯定的回答。

例句
  • Are you looking for someone?
  • Have you lost something?
  • Are you going somewhere?
  • Could somebody help me, please? = 要求
  • Would you like to go somewhere this weekend? = 邀请

如果这些问句被改为反问句,语气就会变得更绝对。在这种情况下,发问者百分之百确认他会得到肯定的回答。

例句
  • Aren't you looking for someone?
  • Haven't you lost something?
  • Aren't you going somewhere?
  • Couldn't somebody help me, please?
  • Wouldn't you like to go somewhere this weekend?