动名词

动名词跟现在分词看起来完全一样,但如果去理解两者之间的差别,会很有帮助。动名词虽然看起来像动词,但作用上跟名词是一样的。动名词的一些用法都会在本页上说明,您也可以参考另一页:接动名词的动词

用作主词的动名词
例句
  • Eating people is wrong.
  • Hunting tigers is dangerous.
  • Flying makes me nervous.
  • Brushing your teeth is important.
  • Smoking causes lung cancer.
动名词用作 Be 动词的补语
举例
  • One of his duties is attending meetings.
  • The hardest thing about learning English is understanding the gerund.
  • One of life's pleasures is having breakfast in bed.
动名词接在介词后

当动词接在介词后,就必须用动名词。对于某些以介词结尾的片语也是如此,例如 in spite of 和 there's no point in 之类的片语。

举例
  • Can you sneeze without opening your mouth?
  • She is good at painting.
  • She avoided him by walking on the opposite side of the road.
  • We arrived in Madrid after driving all night.
  • My father decided against postponing his trip to Hungary.
  • There's no point in waiting.
  • In spite of missing the train, we arrived on time.
动名词用在动词片语后

动词片语是由一个动词 + 介词或副词组成。

举例
  • When will you give up smoking?
  • She always puts off going to the dentist.
  • He kept on asking for money.
  • Jim ended up buying a new TV after his old one broke.

有些动词片语会包含介词 to,例如 to look forward to丶to take to丶to be accustomed to丶to get around to 和 to be used to。在这些情况下,务必要分辨「to」是介词还是不定词,因为这会决定后面是否要接动名词。您可以先查查看 to 是介词还是不定词的一部分。如果可以把代词 it 放在 to 后,可以构成有意义的句子,那么 to 这个字就是介词,而且后面必须接动名词。

举例
  • I look forward to hearing from you soon.
  • I look forward to it.
  • I am used to waiting for buses.
  • I am used to it.
  • She didn't really take to studying English.
  • She didn't really take to it.
  • When will you get around to mowing the grass?
  • When will you get around to it?
复合名词中的动名词

在使用动名词的复合名词中,很显然就是名词的意思,而不是持续性动词。例如,「swimming pool」这个字指的是一个可以游泳的池子,而非「游泳中的池子」。

举例
  • I am giving Sally a driving lesson.
  • They have a swimming pool in their back yard.
  • I bought some new running shoes.
动名词接在某些词语后

在 can't help丶can't stand丶to be worth 和 it's no use 等词语后,必须接动名词。

举例
  • She couldn't help falling in love with him.
  • I can't stand being stuck in traffic jams.
  • It's no use trying to escape.
  • It might be worth phoning the station to check the time of the train.