逗号

在用逗号时,有几种基本规则,但逗号的用法其实还有很多种语,像是用逗号来添加句子的意思或强调某件事情丶要点或意义。

虽然老师常这么教:逗号是用来方便我们在句中有「呼吸的空间」。但更精确的说法,是用来组织多个想法或逻辑。另外,先不论文法上的规则,多数人总会在句中加逗号来确保意思有表达清楚;而有时如果句子没逗号也不会影响意思,就乾脆不加逗号。

在列举的片语丶字词或子句之间做分隔

在列举事物时,一般会用逗号来分隔各项事物。但列举到最後两项事物时,通常会在倒数第二项的字尾标上逗号,再接「and」或「or」来举出最後一项。这种逗号在编辑的术语中,叫做「牛津逗号」。

一系列的独立子句(多个句子)
举例
  • I met Harry, we went for a swim together, and afterwards Harry went home.
  • I like your son, I might even love him, but he is not a very good soccer player.
一系列的名词
举例
  • For dinner I had soup, fish, chicken, dessert, and coffee.
  • This afternoon I went to Oxford Circus, Picadilly, Hamstead, and Gatwick Airport.
一系列的形容词

列举一系列的形容词时,通常也会用上逗号。然而,如果形容词是在修饰别的形容词,则不必以逗号分隔(请见第三个例句)。

举例
  • She was young, beautiful, kind, and intelligent.
  • The house we visited was dark, dreary, and run-down.
  • She was wearing a bright red shirt.
一系列的动词
举例
  • Tony ran towards me, fell, yelled, and fainted.
  • The boy leapt, spun, twisted, and dove into the water.
一系列的片语
举例
  • The car smashed into the wall, flipped onto its roof, slid along the road, and finally stopped against a tree.
  • The dog leapt into the air, snatched the frisbee in its mouth, landed, and ran off into the forest.

添加额外的信息

用逗号来添加非限定关系子句或非必要性的细节或评论,在嵌入的子句前一个字的字尾还有子句的句尾,都会加上逗号。

举例
  • China, one of the most powerful nations on Earth, has a huge population.
  • Jason's grandmother, who was born in 1930, lived through the Second World War.
  • Cats, unlike dogs, do not respect their masters.
  • My friend, Jim, likes to go scuba diving.

分词片语

举例
  • Hearing that her father was in hospital, Jane left work immediately.
  • Walking to the bus stop that morning, Sam knew it was going to be a special day.

附加问句

举例
  • She lives in Paris, doesn't she?
  • We haven't met, have we?

插入的词语

举例
  • Yes, I will stay a little longer, thank you.
  • No, he isn't like other boys.
  • Wait, I didn't mean to scare you.

最後的小提醒

如果把逗号加在错误的地方,可会导致整个句子的意思不同。观察这两个句子吧:
I detest liars like you; I believe that honesty is the best policy. = 我憎恨像你一样的骗子。
I detest liars, like you; I believe that honesty is the best policy. = 你跟你一样都憎恨骗子。