情状副词

情状副词透露某件事是如何发生的,一般会放在主要动词或受词后。

举例
  • He swims well.
  • He ran quickly.
  • She spoke softly.
  • James coughed loudly to attract her attention.
  • He plays the flute beautifully.(在直接受词后)
  • He ate the chocolate cake greedily.(在直接受词后)

情状副词并不能放在动词和直接受词之间,必须放在动词前或句尾。

举例
  • He ate greedily the chocolate cake. [不正确]
  • He ate the chocolate cake greedily. [正确]
  • He greedily ate the chocolate cake. [正确]
  • He gave us generously the money. [不正确]
  • He gave us the money generously. [正确]
  • He generously gave us the money. [正确]

如果动词的受格前有个介词,就要将情状副词放在介词前或受词后。

举例
  • The child ran happily towards his mother.
  • The child ran towards his mother happily.

如果动词没有受词(不及物动词),情状副词就一律应紧接在动词之后。

举例
  • The town grew quickly after 1997.
  • He waited patiently for his mother to arrive.

这些常见的情状副词 well丶badly丶hard丶fast 几乎都是紧接在动词后。

举例
  • He swam well despite being tired.
  • The rain fell hard during the storm.

当句中有多个动词,副词的位置就会变得很重要。如果副词放在主要动词前或后,就只会修饰那个动词。如果副词放在语句后,则会修饰该语句描述的整个动作。从以下例句中,您会发现意思的差异。

例句 意思
She quickly agreed to re-type the letter. 迅速地同意
She agreed quickly to re-type the letter. 迅速地同意
She agreed to re-type the letter quickly. 迅速地重新打
He quietly asked me to leave the house. 安静地询问
He asked me quietly to leave the house. 安静地询问
He asked me to leave the house quietly. 安静地离开
文学上的用法

有时候情状副词会放在动词 + 受词之前,增添强调的意味。

举例
  • He gently woke the sleeping woman.
  • She angrily slammed the door.

有些作家会把情状副词放在句首,引起我们的注意或好奇。

举例
  • Slowly she picked up the knife.
  • Roughly he grabbed her arm.